Red List Category:
Major Threats : Remaining sites are vulnerable to pollution. The European population is threatened by competition and hybridisation with the introduced Ruddy Duck O. jamaicensis. Further threats include drowning in fishing-nets, hunting and ingestion of lead shot.
The species is legally protected in many range countries, and occurs in a number of protected areas. A conservation programme in Spain has resulted in a significant population increase. O. jamaicensis are controlled in Spain, Portugal and France, and a program was started in 2005 to eradicate the UK population of around 6,000.