Red List Category:
Major Threats : The two main threats to the species are direct mortality caused by humans (either accidentally or deliberately) and decreasing availability of food.The main cause of death is the use of poisoned baits for predator extermination, although shooting and destruction of nests also occur. In Europe, decreased food availability is caused by European Union legislation on carcass disposal.
The European Council Directive 79/409/EEC on the conservation of wild birds has contributed to the recovery and conservation of the species in Europe, particularly Spain. Co-operation between Spanish government agencies and conservationists under the 'Antidote Programme' also appears to have been effective in mitigating the effects of poisoned baits. Supplementary feeding programmes have been initiated in Spain and France.